The selection of terms selected here-below are the one applying to our services. The list is by alphabetical order and the information is not exhaustive.

  • Authentication
    Authentication is the process of determining if a product or document is genuine, meaning neither counterfeit, forgery nor ID theft has been done. Different security layers can protect a document:
    Level 1 authentication features are easily identified with a naked eye, i.e. without the need  of additional tools.
    Level 2 authentication features need simple tools like an ultraviolet light or a magnifying glass for their examination.
    Level 3 authentication features require sophisticated equipment to verify them.
  • Counterfeit
    An unauthorized copy or reproduction of a genuine document or product made by whatever means. Counterfeits are fakes or unauthorized replicas of the real product or document. They are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product or document.
  • Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)
    A distributed ledger (also called a shared ledger) is a consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries or institutions. There is no central administrator or centralized data storage. A peer-to-peer network is required as well as consensus algorithms to ensure replication across nodes is undertaken. One form of distributed ledger design is the blockchain system, which can be either public or private.
  • Forgery
    Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating documents, objects, products or data with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
  • Fraud
    Wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain. Technically, Fraud tends to fall into 4 main categories: Theft, False Issuance, Alteration, Counterfeit.
  • Identity theft
    Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else’s identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person’s name, and perhaps to the other person’s disadvantage or loss.
  • Impostor
    A person who applies for and obtains a document or service by assuming a false identity, or a person who alters his physical appearance to represent himself as another person for the purpose of using that person’s documents or benefits.
    ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization.
  • ISO 9001 Quality management
    This standard sets out the criteria for a quality management system. It can be used by any organization, large or small, regardless of its field of activity.
  • ISO 12931 Performance criteria for authentication solutions used to combat counterfeiting of material goods
    This standard specifies performance criteria and evaluation methodology for authentication solutions used to establish material good authenticity throughout the entire material good life cycle. It does not specify how technical solutions achieve these performance criterias.
  • ISO 14001
    This standard specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an organization can use to enhance its environmental performance. It is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability.
  • ISO 14298 Management of security printing processes
    It specifies requirements for a security printing management system for security printers. It specifies a minimum set of security printing management system requirements. Organizations ensure that customer security requirements are met as appropriate provided these do not conflict with the requirements of ISO 14298.
  • ISO 18000 Information technology – Radio frequency identification for item management
    It describes a series of diverse RFID technologies, each using a unique frequency range.
  • ISO/IEC 27001 Information security management
    It is the international standard ensuring the organization’s information is secure. This International Standard specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining and continually improving an information security management system within the context of
    the organization. This International Standard also includes requirements for the assessment and treatment of information security risks tailored to the needs of the organization.
  • RFID Frequency Bands: Band / Regulations / Range / Data speed
    120-150 kHz (LF)  /  Unregulated  /  10 cm  /  Low
    13.56 MHz (HF)  /  ISM band, worldwide  /  10 cm-1 m  /  Low to moderate
    433 MHz (UHF)  /  Short range devices  /  1-100 m  /  Moderate
    865-868 MHz (UHF)  /  ISM band  /  1-12 m  /  Moderate to high
    902-928 MHz (UHF)         ”                        ”                         ”
    2450-5800 MHz  /  ISM Band  /  1-2 m  /  High
    3.1-10 GHz  /  Ultra wide band  /  up to 200 m High
  • Risk Assessment
    A thorough analysis intended to identify and quantify the nature and estimated level of risk associated with a process.
  • SHA
    SHA is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA). Cryptographic hash functions are mathematical operations run on digital data; by comparing the computed “hash” (the output from execution of the algorithm) to a known and expected hash value, a person can determine the data’s integrity. For example, computing the hash of a downloaded file and comparing the result to a previously published hash result can show whether the download has been modified or tampered with. A key aspect of cryptographic hash functions is their collision resistance: nobody should be able to find two different input values that result in the same hash output.
  • Tier Standard
    The Uptime Institute’s “Tier Standard: Topology” establishes four distinctive definitions of data centre site infrastructure using the Tier Classifications (I, II, III, and IV). A Tier III data centre is Concurrently Maintainable: Each and every capacity component and distribution path in a site can be removed on a planned basis for maintenance or replacement without impacting operations. The site is still exposed to an equipment failure or operator error. A Tier IV data centre is Fault Tolerant: An individual equipment failure or distribution path interruption will not impact operations. A Fault Tolerant site is also Concurrently Maintainable.
  • Vulnerability
    A weakness or gap in an authentication system, resulting in a higher probability of successful attack.